Vanished in a Strange Land: Iceland’s Infamous Crime Alongside Cultural History

Book review: Out of Thin Air, by Anthony Adeane (Amazon / Book Depository)

This is a nation of reading and storytelling, with a rich literary history of world renown, where it is a long-standing tradition to give books to each other as gifts on Christmas Eve, where the legends of the Sagas are writ large in public spaces, and where one in ten people see their words in print…In Iceland, stories have long been told as a means of survival.

Serious crime isn’t nonexistent in Iceland, but it’s not common either. In 1974, two men, Gudmunder and Geirfinnur Einarsson (unrelated despite the surname) disappeared and were presumed dead, despite their bodies never being found. Their disappearances set into motion the Nordic island nation’s biggest investigation in history. The result was the conviction of six people, mostly petty criminals, several who didn’t know each other, based on their own confessions.

Unfortunately, these confessions were coerced, manipulated and obtained under extreme duress. It’s highly unlikely that any of the six had anything to do with the disappearances of either man. It remains questionable whether the men were even murdered or rather died as the result of unrelated accidents. But of course, this kind of case always raises the question of why anyone would confess to a crime they didn’t commit. It also provides one of the best explorations into this topic that I’ve come across.

London-based journalist and BBC producer Anthony Adeane spent several years in Iceland, beginning in 2014 after pitching a documentary about the bizarre story. With his outsider’s perspective and ability to distill much about what’s unusual and unique in the country, he researched and conducted interviews with survivors still connected to the case. I’m not sure why I decided to give the book a chance when I gave up on the Netflix documentary of the same name a few months ago, just not able get into it, but I’m glad I did because the book is incredibly compelling.

Adeane presents narratives of what occurred in terms of the disappearances and, in most detail, during the hectic, frenzied time of the interrogations. A lot of material comes from Erla Bolladottir (though it doesn’t feel biased), the only woman involved. She shows how much the investigation has shadowed the rest of her life as she still struggles for exoneration. She also provides chilling first person insight into how and why her confession came about.

Some of the story takes place in the present, where the cases continue to dominate headlines. They were never really solved, so as late as 2016, new leads have popped up – sometimes shedding a little light on what may have happened and why the police pushed the narrative of events that they did.

Adeane puts forth an excellent overview of the phenomenons of false confessions and planted memories. This includes extensive information from disturbing studies done about the harmful, hallucinogenic effects of isolation, in which these suspects were held. The research done on suggested memories was new to me, and reading about it was so enlightening. To anyone who doubts whether false confessions are possible, taken together with the ease that researchers have had in making study subjects believe their suggested false memories, you’ll really have to work to doubt it after this.

The book shows what a strong hold this psychological manipulation of false confessing and planted memories has. It’s been surreally confusing for some of the six to come to terms with the fact that they didn’t commit crimes, even knowing what they know now, so long after the fact. One “still has memories of that same moment, like replays of an old film, in which he drives to Keflavik at night down the long, dark road that carves through the lava fields, to play his part in a crime that probably didn’t happen, to be on time for an appointment he never made.”

Besides being a true crime account of what went wrong and why in this case, Adeane writes a book that’s like a mini cultural and social tour of Iceland. I know next to nothing about the country besides its recent, sometimes hipsterish boom in tourism, having become a favorite especially for American vacationers (which gets some attention here, including how it’s affected the Icelandic people.)

I learned so much from this part of the book. Iceland has a fascinating and strange history, which influences much of their present culture and beliefs. Adeane tells the historical and cultural aspects so well, including major events like the 2008 financial crisis and the country’s importance in the Cold War, and cultural quirks like bizarre bans and resistance to outside influence. A particular sticking point here is the infiltration of the English language (which seems odd considering how well the people Adeane encounters speak English.)

So much strikes an outsider as weird or surreal about the country and its norms. Part of that stems from how small it is, which made the aftereffects for those convicted doubly horrible. It was impossible to escape the public eye. The whole country is a village. “Reputation is everything in a country where anonymity is impossible,” he writes.

There were several cons: first, I remain confused about what exactly happened in terms of the disappearances. One of the stories is much clearer to me than the other. This may be partly my fault, because the book is written so compellingly that it’s easy to get lost in it. I read it in less than a day, which was probably too fast, considering the confusion of what’s true and what’s not. The onslaught of Icelandic names didn’t help.

Second, Adeane doesn’t focus much on the families or friends of the missing men, only on the convicted suspects. Granted, the story is of a huge miscarriage of justice, underscored by the emphasis Adeane places on making the reader understand the possibility of false confessions and planted memories. But like in too many sensational crime stories, the victims are ignored. It makes a lopsided story, for example Geirfinnur’s disappearance narrative in its various forms always includes the element of liquor smuggling, but without what I felt was clear input from his family on whether he was actually ever involved with that.

Third con, there’s very little about who or what may have been responsible for the disappearances. It’s very odd that in a country with minimal serious crime that two disappearances would occur so close together and without any trace of them being recovered. Maybe it’s really that no information about the truth exists, lost in the whirlwind of what came after, but it does feel unsatisfying to be left completely wondering.

It’s a completely gripping read despite these drawbacks. The fascinating cultural and historical aspects should make it an interesting choice even for non-true crime readers.
Verdict: 3.5/5

Out of Thin Air:
A True Story of Impossible Murder in Iceland
by Anthony Adeane
published April 3, 2018 by Harper Collins Canada
originally published in the UK March 8, 2018 by riverrun (Quercus Books)

(Amazon / Book Depository)


21 thoughts on “Vanished in a Strange Land: Iceland’s Infamous Crime Alongside Cultural History

Add yours

  1. This book sounds so interesting! The non-fiction topic of false confessions is so big right now, but I’m not getting bored of it! I’s not heard of this book before now, but it’s definitely going onto my TBR 🙂
    Fantastic review! Great to see your negative and positives for it 🙂

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you so much! I feel exactly the same about the false confessions topic, I keep thinking I’ll be tired of it, but each time it’s so fascinating and revealing! And it feels like a really important topic too, considering how much it’s been completely misunderstood. The research done here explaining the confessions is just excellent. I’m glad you found something for your TBR in this one, it’s definitely a gripping and worthwhile read 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

  2. Oh!! I really want to read this – adding it to my TBR even though my TBR is at crisis level at the moment.

    I dated a guy from Iceland in 2014ish, and fell in love with the country. I am a little scared to go back now because of the stories I have heard about tourism reshaping the culture there.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I hear you – my TBR is out of control yet I dropped everything to read this one. If it’s any help, this isn’t too long, it’s easily readable and very compelling, so it’s a quick one to move off the TBR at least! 🙂

      I think you’d have such a completely different perspective of it than I did, since I knew nothing of the culture, have never visited and never met anyone from there. I’m curious about what your take on the culture would be since you have firsthand experience. The author addresses a little about how tourism has reshaped it, and it doesn’t come across very positively despite the economic boost. I remember years ago there were subway ads in NYC touting super cheap fares to Reykjavik and I would stare at them every day, so burnt out, thinking “yes please, take me there” ha! I think that was around the start of the tourist boom, it was just so cheap to get there, and then the otherworldly landscape scenery sealed the deal. But surely they had no idea how big it would become, and for such a small country it’s hard not to feel the impact of that.

      Sorry for the segue – I hope you read it because I’d love to har your thoughts!


    1. I definitely think it would appeal even to non-true crime readers. Very little focuses on the actual “crime”, since it’s still unknown if one even took place. I loved the insight it gave into the culture, society, history – all of it!

      And I agree, it’s funny – I’ve seen things about Icelandic crime novels, maybe the lack of it really stokes their writers’ imaginations!


  3. Great review. I visited Iceland a few decades ago, before the tourism boom. It was my absolute favorite vacation, a truly marvelous place to go. Now I am very torn between wanting to go with the family and not wanting to see all the changes that have certainly come about since my last visit. Even then, in the urban areas almost everyone was at least bilingual if not trilingual so it was a very friendly city if you knew English or another major European language.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you! I think you’re really lucky to have been back then and seen it in a different state! I can only imagine how different it would be now after the tourism boom – it seemed like such a massive influx so suddenly. And I’m always so impressed with places where the people are bilingual or even trilingual – it seems to be especially common in the Nordic countries.

      Liked by 1 person

  4. Wow, this sounds so good! I’ve been impressed by how you review pretty much all the new releases I’m looking forward too, but you’ve also reviewed a few books lately that I’ve never heard of but which sound fantastic and this is one of those. I am fascinated by Icelandic culture and this sounds like a book with a great story that also explores some bigger topics – my kind of book!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I think we have really similar tastes in nonfiction! And I’m so glad to be able to give you a look at some titles that you hadn’t heard of yet as well. This one gives a great (but I think pretty introductory) glimpse into Icelandic culture but I thought it was well done and just interesting overall. I’m not sure if/when it’ll be published in the states but it’s available over Book Depository or Amazon from the UK (that’s how I got it, at least.) It’s worth a read for sure!

      Liked by 1 person

    1. It was a great read, I hope you get to it soon! Would love to hear your thoughts. I might try the documentary again now that I know more, but the book just engrosses you immediately and the doc didn’t do that for me.

      Liked by 1 person

  5. Nice balanced review! It’s very interesting how minimal the crime rate is in Iceland (maybe because they’re all related? XD) and I feel like in general in Nordic countries, crime (or I mean murderers, stranglers…) rarely gets media attention but then there are these 50 years old cases that are so shady and that are chewed over again every couple of years. Anyway, I shouldread this!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Thank you so much! Haha yes it’s strange that there’s very little serious crime and then the big complex ones that seem to be discussed constantly, so true! This is definitely a fascinating read and case…maybe just frustrating that enough info about what really happened isn’t available. I recommend it though, I think you’d like it!

      Liked by 1 person

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Create a free website or blog at

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: